Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3.0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/init.php on line 48 Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3.0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/init.php on line 48 Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/calendar.php on line 143 Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/calendar.php on line 147 Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/calendar.php on line 148 Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/calendar.php on line 28 Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/calendar.php on line 30 Warning: mktime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/calendar.php on line 39 Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/calendar.php on line 40 Warning: mktime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/calendar.php on line 41 Warning: mktime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/calendar.php on line 42 Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/calendar.php on line 44 Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/calendar.php on line 49 Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/calendar.php on line 49 Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/calendar.php on line 50 Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/calendar.php on line 50 Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/calendar.php on line 213 Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/topnews.php on line 46 Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/topnews.php on line 110 Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/topnews.php on line 182 Warning: strtotime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/topnews.php on line 188 Warning: strtotime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/topnews.php on line 188 Warning: strtotime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/topnews.php on line 188 Warning: strtotime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/topnews.php on line 188 Warning: strtotime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/topnews.php on line 188 Warning: strtotime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/topnews.php on line 188 Warning: strtotime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/topnews.php on line 188 Warning: strtotime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/topnews.php on line 188 Warning: strtotime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/topnews.php on line 188 Warning: strtotime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/topnews.php on line 188 Warning: strtotime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/topnews.php on line 188 Warning: strtotime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/topnews.php on line 188 Warning: strtotime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/topnews.php on line 188 Warning: strtotime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/topnews.php on line 188 Warning: strtotime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/topnews.php on line 188 Warning: strtotime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/topnews.php on line 188 Warning: strtotime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/topnews.php on line 188 Warning: strtotime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/topnews.php on line 188 Warning: strtotime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/topnews.php on line 188 Warning: strtotime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/topnews.php on line 188 Warning: strtotime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/topnews.php on line 188 Warning: strtotime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/topnews.php on line 188 Warning: strtotime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/topnews.php on line 188 Warning: strtotime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/topnews.php on line 188 Warning: strtotime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/topnews.php on line 188 Warning: strtotime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/topnews.php on line 188 Warning: strtotime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/topnews.php on line 188 Warning: strtotime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/topnews.php on line 188 Warning: strtotime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/topnews.php on line 188 Warning: strtotime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/topnews.php on line 188 Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/engine.php on line 146 Warning: strtotime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/show.short.php on line 81 Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/show.short.php on line 146 Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/show.short.php on line 146 Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/show.short.php on line 150 Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/show.short.php on line 150 Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/show.short.php on line 268 Warning: strtotime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/show.short.php on line 81 Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/show.short.php on line 146 Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/show.short.php on line 146 Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/show.short.php on line 150 Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/show.short.php on line 150 Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/show.short.php on line 268 Warning: strtotime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/show.short.php on line 81 Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/show.short.php on line 146 Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/show.short.php on line 146 Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/show.short.php on line 150 Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/show.short.php on line 150 Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/show.short.php on line 268 Warning: strtotime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/show.short.php on line 81 Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/show.short.php on line 146 Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/show.short.php on line 146 Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/show.short.php on line 150 Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/show.short.php on line 150 Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/show.short.php on line 268 Warning: strtotime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/show.short.php on line 81 Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/show.short.php on line 146 Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/show.short.php on line 146 Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/show.short.php on line 150 Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/show.short.php on line 150 Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/show.short.php on line 268 Warning: strtotime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/show.short.php on line 81 Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/show.short.php on line 146 Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/show.short.php on line 146 Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/show.short.php on line 150 Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/show.short.php on line 150 Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/show.short.php on line 268 Warning: strtotime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/show.short.php on line 81 Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/show.short.php on line 146 Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/show.short.php on line 146 Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/show.short.php on line 150 Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/show.short.php on line 150 Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/show.short.php on line 268 Warning: strtotime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/show.short.php on line 81 Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/show.short.php on line 146 Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/show.short.php on line 146 Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/show.short.php on line 150 Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/show.short.php on line 150 Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/show.short.php on line 268 Warning: strtotime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/show.short.php on line 81 Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/show.short.php on line 146 Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/show.short.php on line 146 Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/show.short.php on line 150 Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/show.short.php on line 150 Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/show.short.php on line 268 Warning: strtotime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/show.short.php on line 81 Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/show.short.php on line 146 Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/show.short.php on line 146 Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/show.short.php on line 150 Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/show.short.php on line 150 Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/show.short.php on line 268 Warning: strtotime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/show.short.php on line 81 Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/show.short.php on line 146 Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/show.short.php on line 146 Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/show.short.php on line 150 Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/show.short.php on line 150 Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/show.short.php on line 268 Warning: strtotime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/show.short.php on line 81 Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/show.short.php on line 146 Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/show.short.php on line 146 Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/show.short.php on line 150 Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/show.short.php on line 150 Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/show.short.php on line 268 Warning: strtotime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/show.short.php on line 81 Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/show.short.php on line 146 Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/show.short.php on line 146 Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/show.short.php on line 150 Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/show.short.php on line 150 Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/show.short.php on line 268 Warning: strtotime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/show.short.php on line 81 Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/show.short.php on line 146 Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/show.short.php on line 146 Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/show.short.php on line 150 Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/show.short.php on line 150 Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/show.short.php on line 268 Warning: strtotime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/show.short.php on line 81 Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/show.short.php on line 146 Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/show.short.php on line 146 Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/show.short.php on line 150 Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/show.short.php on line 150 Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/show.short.php on line 268 Warning: strtotime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/show.short.php on line 81 Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/show.short.php on line 146 Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/show.short.php on line 146 Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/show.short.php on line 150 Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/show.short.php on line 150 Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/show.short.php on line 268 Warning: strtotime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/show.short.php on line 81 Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/show.short.php on line 146 Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/show.short.php on line 146 Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/show.short.php on line 150 Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/show.short.php on line 150 Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/show.short.php on line 268 Warning: strtotime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/show.short.php on line 81 Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/show.short.php on line 146 Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/show.short.php on line 146 Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/show.short.php on line 150 Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/show.short.php on line 150 Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/show.short.php on line 268 Warning: strtotime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/show.short.php on line 81 Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/show.short.php on line 146 Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/show.short.php on line 146 Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/show.short.php on line 150 Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/show.short.php on line 150 Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/show.short.php on line 268 Warning: strtotime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/show.short.php on line 81 Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/show.short.php on line 146 Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/show.short.php on line 146 Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/show.short.php on line 150 Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/show.short.php on line 150 Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/show.short.php on line 268 Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/rssinform.php on line 97 Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'Europe/Moscow' for 'MSK/3,0/no DST' instead in /var/www/damir/data/www/yo31.ru/engine/modules/rssinform.php on line 97 Подвижной состав. Локомотивы и вагоны » Станция Белгород расписание поездов. Железнодорожный транспорт


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Станция Белгород - Расписание поездов » Железные дороги » Подвижной состав. Локомотивы и вагоны

 
 


Движение поездов на железнодорожном транспорте осуществляется с помощью тягового подвижного состава. К тяговому подвижному составу относятся локомотивы и моторвагонный подвижной состав; последний состоит из моторных и прицепных вагонов. На локомоти­вах и моторных вагонах электрическая энергия, полученная от первичного источника, превращается в механическую энергию движе­ния поезда.
Первоначально преобразование тепловой энергии, получаемой при сжигании топлива, в механическую производилось установкой с паро­вым котлом и паровой машиной. Локомотивы с такими установками получили название паровозов.
В дальнейшем на смену паросиловым установкам пришли более совершенные тепловые двигатели: дизели и газовые турбины. Локомотивы с поршневыми двигателями внутреннего сгорания (дизелями) называются тепловозами, а с газотурбинными установками — газотурбовозами.

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По роду работы локомотивы подразделяют на грузовые, пас­сажирские и маневровые. Грузовые локомотивы долж­ны развивать силу тяги, позволяющую водить поезда большой массы. Пассажирские локомотивы предназначены для вождения более легких поездов, но с большими скоростями.
Моторвагонный подвижной состав, применяемый на электрифициро­ванных линиях, состоит из электровагонов, включаемых в электропо­езда; на неэлектрифицированных линиях применяют дизель-поезда. В отличие от локомотивов моторные вагоны не только служат для тяги поезда, а используются и для перевозки пассажиров.

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К электрическому подвижному составу относятся электровозы и элект­ровагоны.
В зависимости от рода применяемого тока различают электровозы постоянного (рис. 92), переменного тока (рис. 93) и двойного питания; так же различаются и электропоезда.
 
Электровоз постоянного тока ВЛ10
Рис. 92. Электровоз постоянного тока ВЛ10
 
Электровоз постоянного тока ВЛ80
Рис. 93. Электровоз переменного тока ВЛ80

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Кузов электровоза служит для размещения в нем электрической аппаратуры и другого оборудования. Каркас кузова металлический, наружная обшивка обычно состоит из стальных листов, а кабина ма­шиниста содержит и внутреннюю обшивку с тепловой и звуковой изо­ляцией.

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В качестве тяговых электродвигателей на электро­возах постоянного тока в основном применяют двигатели с последова­тельным возбуждением. Они менее чувствительны к колебаниям на­пряжения в контактной сети и обеспечивают более равномерное распределение нагрузки при их параллельном включении, чем элект­родвигатели других систем возбуждения.
Тяговые электродвигатели рассчитаны на номинальное напряже­ние 1500 В.

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От контактной сети переменного тока электровоз получает однофазный ток промышленной частоты 50 Гц, номинального напряжения 25 000 В. Электрическое оборудование такого электровоза отличается от обору­дования электровоза постоянного тока главным образом наличием по­нижающего трансформатора и выпрямительной установки.
Трансформаторы выполняют с интенсивным циркуляционным мас-ловоздушным охлаждением. Принцип работы такого охлаждения ясен из рис 101.

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Для пригородного пассажирского сообщения на электрифицированных линиях используются электропоезда, состоящие из моторных и при­цепных электровагонов. Мощность моторного вагона рассчитана на передвижение совместно с одним или двумя прицепными вагонами. В зависимости от размера пассажиропотоков поезда формируются из 4, 6, 8, 10 и 12 вагонов. Для пригородных линий, электрифициро­ванных на постоянном токе, используются электропоезда серий ЭР1, ЭР2 (рис. 104), ЭР22, а для линий, работающих на переменном токе,— серий ЭР9П и ЭР9М.

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Тепловоз (рис. 106) состоит из следующих основных частей: первичного двигателя, передачи, экипажа и вспомогательного оборудования.
Первичным двигателем на тепловозе является дизель. Чтобы привести во вращение колесные пары тепловоза от вала дизеля, тре­буется специальная передача. Если вал дизеля непосредственно соеди­нить с движущими осями тепловоза, то двигатель нельзя будет запус­тить под нагрузкой и трогание такого локомотива будет затруднено. Кроме того, частота вращения вала дизеля, а следовательно, и его мощность будут пропорциональны скорости движения тепловоза, По­этому полная мощность дизеля может быть получена лишь при макси­мальной скорости.

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На тепловозах применяются как четырехтактные, так и двухтактные бескомпрессорные двигатели внутреннего сгорания.
Принцип работы четырехтактного двигателя иллюстрируется рис. 109. При движении поршня 2 вниз (1-й такт) воздух подается в цилиндр через открытый впускной клапан 5. При обратном движении поршня (2-й такт), когда клапаны 5 и 6 закрыты, происходит сжа­тие воздуха, сопровождающееся сильным его нагреванием В конце этого такта в цилиндр впрыскивается дизельное топливо, которое самовоспламеняется. В цилиндре повышается давление и температура продукты сгорания топлива давят на поршень, перемещают его вниз и совершают при этом полезную работу (3-й такт). При следую­щем ходе поршня вверх (4-й такт) происходит выпуск отработавших газов из цилиндра. Таким образом, рассмотренные процессы, состав­ляющие рабочий цикл двигателя, протекают за четыре хода порш­ня, т. е. за два оборота коленчатого вала. Рабочим ходом поршня, совершающим полезную работу (вращение вала), является толь­ко третий.

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Электрическая передача является наиболее распространенной. Прин­ципиальная схема работы тепловоза с электрической передачей заклю­чается в следующем. Коленчатый вал дизеля вращает якорь тягового генератора; генератор вырабатывает постоянный электрический ток, который поступает в тяговые электродвигатели. Вращение их якорей посредством тяговых редукторов передается движущим колесным па­рам.

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Механическая передача подобна автомобильной: она со­стоит из шестеренчатой коробки скоростей, реверсивного устройства и муфты сцепления. Эта передача проста по устройству и имеет высокий к. п. д. Однако при переключении скоростей возникает резкое паде­ние и последующее возрастание силы тяги, что вызывает сильные рывки в составе. Поэтому механическая передача применяется лишь в мотовозах, автомотрисах и дизельных поездах сравнительно неболь­шой мощности.исах и дизельных поездах сравнительно неболь­шой мощности.

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Дизельным поездом называется постоянно сформирован­ный состав с одним или двумя моторными рагонами и дизельной сило­вой установкой.
Рижским вагоностроительным заводом выпускается четырехвагон-ный дизельный поезд ДР1 «Балтика» с гидравлической передачей (кон­струкционная скорость 120 км/ч), а также выпущен опытный дизель­ный поезд ДР2, состоящий из двух моторных вагонов и двух располо­женных между ними прицепных вагонов. Дизель, цилиндры которого располагаются горизонтально вместе с гидропередачей, размещен под рамой моторного вагона, что позволило увеличить в нем количество посадочных мест.

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Газотурбовозом называется локомотив, у которого первичным двига­телем является газовая турбина (ротационный двигатель внутрен­него сгорания).
Преимуществом газотурбидной установки (ГТУ) является возмож­ность осуществления большой агрегатной мощности при сравнитель­но ограниченных габаритных размерах и массе, полная уравновешен­ность, отсутствие возвратно-поступательно движущихся деталей, сок­ращение количества подшипников, отсутствие системы водяного охлаждения, работа на дешевых сортах жидкого топлива. Недостат­ком является невысокий к. п. д., заметно снижающийся при работе на частичных нагрузках.

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Паровоз приводится в движение паровой машиной, преобразующей тепловую энергию пара в механическую работу. Для приготовления пара, обладающего необходимым давлением и температурой, служит пароэой котел, в топке кото­рого сжигается твердое или жидкое топливо.
Запас воды, топлива и смазки хранится в специальной повозке, сцеплен­ной с паровозом и называемой тендером.

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Котел паровоза К (см. рис. 116) состоит из топки; цилиндрической части и дымовой коробки. Топка имеет внутреннюю (огневую) коробку и наружную — кожух топки. Пространство между огневой коробкой и кожухом топки заполне­но водой
Для равномерного нагрева котла и интенсивного парообразования в топке в зоне наиболее высоких температур установлены циркуляционные трубы. При горении топлива вода, заполняющая эти трубы, быстро испаряется и заменяется; чем достигается циркуляция воды в котле, обеспечивающая равномерное нагре­вание стенок котла. Цилиндрическая часть котла состоит из нескольких сталь­ных барабанов; по концам которых расположены передняя 11 и задняя 5 решет­ки с круглыми отверстиями для укрепления концов жаровых н дымогарныхітруб; соединяющих огневую коробку с дымовой коробкой Обслуживание и постоян­ный контроль за работой котла осуществляютси с помощью приборов и устройств, носящих название арматуры.

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Тяговые расчеты являются составной частью науки о тяге поездов. Тяговые расчеты служат для решения различного рода задач, связан­ных сдвижением поездов и возникающих как при проектировании же­лезных дорог, локомотивов и вагонов, так и в процессе их эксплуа­тации. Например, на основе данных, полученных тяговыми расчетами, составляются графики движения поездов, определяется пропускная способность железнодорожных линий, размещаются раздельные пункты, тяговые подстанции, склады топлива, определяются нормы расхода электроэнергии и топлива локомотивами и решаются другие практические задачи.

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Нагрузка, передаваемая от локомотива в виде давления колес на рельсы в статическом (неподвижном) состоянии, значительно увели­чивается при движении локомотива. Воздействие локомотива на путь может достигнуть такой величины, что станет опасным для прочно­сти рельсов, и, наоборот, настолько уменьшится, что приведет к разгрузке отдельных осей и сходу их с рельсов.
Действие локомотивов на путь слагается из вертикальных усилий и усилий, действующих в горизонтальной плоскости, появляющих­ся вследствие давления гребней колесных пар на головки рельсов на прямых и особенно на кривых участках пути.
Полная вертикальная нагрузка от колес ло­комотива на рельсы при его движении в основном слагается из постоян­ной (статической) нагрузки, переменной нагрузки вследствие дефор­мации рессор от колебаний надрессорного строения локомотива и дина­мической нагрузки, возникающей при движении колеса по неровно­стям рельса или из-за неровностей бандажа колес.
Рассмотрим воздействие на путь составляющих вертикальной нагрузки.

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Локомотивное хозяйство обеспечивает перевозочную работу желез­ных дорог тяговыми средствами и содержание этих средств в соответ­ствии с техническими требованиями. К сооружениям и устройствам этого хозяйства относятся основные локомотивные депо, специализи­рованные мастерские по ремонту отдельных узлов локомотивов, пунк­ты технического обслуживания, экипировки локомотивов и смены бригад, базы запаса локомотивов. Под экипировкой понимают комп­лекс операций по снабжению их топливом, водой, песком, смазкой, обтирочными материалами, связанных с подготовкой локомотивов к работе.

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Электровозы и тепловозы обслуживаются бригадами в составе маши­ниста и его помощника, а на паровозах при угольном отоплении и кочегара.
По разрешению МПС моторвагонные поезда, поездные электро­возы и тепловозы могут обслуживаться одним машинистом при нали­чии устройств автоматической остановки в случае внезапной потери машинистом способности вести поезд.
При электрической и тепловозной тяге одна локомотивная брига­да может обслуживать несколько локомотивов или постоянно соеди­ненных секций, управляемых из одной кабины.

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Экипировка электровозов заключается в снабжении их песком, сма­зочными и обтирочными материалами, наружной обмывке и обтирке. В экипировку тепловозов, кроме того, входит снабжение дизельным топливом и дистиллированной водой для охлаждения лизеля. Эта во­да приготовлена из химически обработанного конденсата пара.
Пробег электровоза и тепловоза между экипировками ограничива­ется запасом песка и составляет 500—600 км. Экипируются эти ло­комотивы на специально оборудованных путях или в закрытых экипировочных помещениях. В обоих случаях экипировочные устрой­ства и смотровые канавы, где осматривают нижнюю часть локомоти­ва, а для электровозов, кроме того, специальные площадки для ос­мотра токоприемников располагаются таким образом, чтобы можно было совместить все операции во времени На рис. 127 показана схе­ма расположения устройств для совмещенной экипировки и техни­ческого осмотра тепловозов. Дизельное топливо хранится в металли­ческих резервуарах объемом до 4000 т. Из хранилищ оно подается насосом к раздаточным колонкам, а из них по резиновым шлангам в топливные баки тепловозов.

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